Religion and Economics: Their Significance for Social Change

Religion and Economics: Their Significance for Social Change
True religion and economics, in a way build the foundation of a society. Religion is used to justify the existing order, either directly by pointing out the essential harmonies of the system, or indirectly by pointing both to the impossibility and to the wickedness of any suggestion to change it. To explore the relations between religion and economics we takes only the starting place with the beginnings of modern economic theory and examines the perspectives on those relations that have developed within the sociology of religion since the late nineteenth century. The concept of social change implies measurement of some characteristics and changes that are beneficial to the society. The Social change is a topic in sociology and social work, but also involves political science, economics, history, anthropology, and many other social sciences. It is claimed that a primary agent of social change is technological advancement, such that the wide adoption of a new technology leads to imbalance in the economic relationship between economic agents. This in turn leads to changes in the social balance of power, therefore leading to social change. Here an attempt is made with a critical analysis to define the terms, bring out the contribution of religious economists like Karl Marx and Max Weber and Indian scenario along with the pastoral care implications.

Defining economics[1] and religion for social change

C.T.Kurien defines: “An economy is a structure of relationships among a group of people in terms of the manner in which they exercise control over the recourses, use recourses and labour in the production of goods and services and define and settle the claims of the members over what is produced”[2].
Among the Development of Economic Analysis the discussion of the relationship between economics and religion is overwhelmed by a general problem having to do with how appropriate it is to speak of separate domains—such as the economic or the religious—in pre-modern, especially primal, societies, where such distinctions were or are not part of everyday life.[3]
Indeed, only during the last two hundred years or so have we become accustomed to speak of the economy, even though the term was used as long ago as the fourth century BCE by Aristotle to designate the relationships among members of the domestic household. In spite of the great expansion of trade, profit making, and eventually, price setting by market forces and the appearance of large-scale manufacture during the centuries following Aristotle, it was not until as recently as the end of the eighteenth century that "the economy" became fully thematized as a relatively autonomous realm of human life.[4]

Ambedkar understand religion not as a means to spiritual salvation of individual souls but as a social practice for establishing the righteous relation between human and human.[5] In the past, men have been as much exploited by the meaning of systems, religion, culture and ideology as by the organizational system. They have been the prisoners and victims of a wrong understanding of society that privileged the dominant groups and classes. Here religion contributed or not to bring about justice and equality in the very organization of the society is the concern. Religion has two fold function such as function of submission (demand for legitimation) and function of revolt (prophetism or demand for compensation).[6]
Religion can be defined as a set of symbolic forms and acts which relate man to the ultimate conditions of his existence.[7] Religion is indeed distinguished from other meaning systems by its emphasis on the ultimate. All religions unavoidably exercise a social function. Religion offers a systematic integration and message capable of giving a unified meaning to life by a coherent vision of the world and of human existence. This message is however always situated in a precise historical context. Here Max Weber is relevant by showing how religion contributes simultaneously to the legitimation of the power of the privileged group and to the subservience of the underprivileged. The social position of the former is justified as being part of an order fixed and ordained in an after life offers the latter a compensation for their present position.[8]
The role of religion in defining purity and pollution and legitimizing caste connects it with the social structuring of the material basis of society.[9] Religion has played a negative role in the structural transformation of the societies. The caste system, divine rights of the kings, the support of slavery, colonialism, capitalism and opposition to socialist movements today are only few examples. The exclusive ideological function of religion is rapidly disappearing. Though most leaders of organized religions tend to support the existing social order or disorder, there are also encouraging signs of meaningful rethinking and involvement among various religious groups.
The Economic system and structure for social change
Every individual and society has to satisfy certain physical and psychological needs such as food, clothing, shelter, art, entertainment, medicines, ceremonies etc. They meet this need though the instruments of labor and every society possesses an economic organization or system. There are basically two approaches to economics namely the capitalist[10] and socialist or Marxist[11]. Paul A. Samuelson a well known American economist has defined economics as the study of how men and society choose, with or without the use of money, to employ limited productive resources, which could have alternative uses, to produce various commodities over time and distribute them for consumption, how and in the future, among various people and groups in society.[12] The economic system comprises of four basic structures such as production (productive force, means of production, Labor), distribution, exchange and consumption (technical relations or organization and social relations).[13]
The capitalism brought great transformation by suppurating economic function from the social relations. The bifurcation of people on the basis of family, caste, ethnic grouping, religious community, urban- rural division are playing the basic role assigning people their place, task, claim on resources and status in the society. Economic transactions increasingly dominate all areas of life which is described as monetization, marketization, and commodification.
The ultimate evil of the society is economic injustice and struggles for economic equality. Proletarians[14] struggle for the right to get equal share of profit, women do not have equal right, equal share of their family property. High class or high caste people act as exploiter and oppressors of the common people.[15] According to M.M.Thomas economic exploitation, social oppression and religious fatalism are prevalent. Poverty and capitalism are root cause for the economic inequality in the society. Human beings need freedom from all kinds of slavery.[16] Women and children are looked inhuman and are deprived as well as go through sexual harassment.[17] The concerns for social justice and new economic values have to be introduced into the framework.[18] There is lack of participation of all sectors of society in the decision making structures of the economic organization at all stages: planning, execution, and evaluation.[19]


Karl Marx and Max Weber


Karl Marx and Marx Weber sought to understand modernity by comparing pre-capitalist society with the capitalism. Marx explored he transition from feudalism to capitalism and Weber the capitalist impulse that arose with Protestantism. Weber in his studies of world religions understands the actual custom of different societies, the thinking behind the customs, and the focus that led to changes in customs. For Weber the beliefs underlying the customs sustain the custom.[20]
Karl Marx the atheistic critic of religion points at some of the deep longings which express themselves in religion, when he writes: “Religious distress is at the same time the expression of real distress and also the protest against real distress. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, just as it is the spirit of the spiritless conditions, but he continues it is the opium[21] of the people.”[22] Whatever religion express for him, is based on illusions. About social transformation Karl Marx should not be viewed as an advocate of violence. He was aware of the historical linkage between violence and revolution, but violence plays an effective role in societal change only if the political contradictions within the society have established the appropriate preconditions for change. In short, violence does not cause revolutionary change, but it may be one of the birth pangs of societal transformation.[23] Religion is a mark of oppression, form of alienation and exploitation and he rejected all theories of supernatural powers.[24] Gandhi recognized the social reality and held that man is essentially a social being and every individual is a part of the nation or the social structure surrounding[25] him/her.

Paulose Mar Paulose says economic injustice requires economic equality. He was influenced by the Marxism fight against economic injustice. He opposes the popular view of religion that economic backwardness in one’s fate and prosperity is the blessing of God. According to the Biblical understanding, he says, human being has only ‘the stewardship’ of the earth. In God’s economic plan all human beings are supposed to be equal and equal distribution of resources. To eradicate poverty, people should not be considered merely as the objects of the charity, but they should be encouraged to become the agents to change the unjust economic structure and economic oppression. The proletarians should have the right to get equal share of profit.[26]

Max Weber[27] best known and recognized today as one of the leading scholars and founders of modern sociology, he also accomplished much in other fields, notably economics dealing with the structure of Indian society were from the ancient days social system were shaped by the concept of caste.[28] Max Weber tried to identify the contribution of ascetic puritan ethic-rooted in Calvinist faith[29]- to building of a tremendous cosmos of the modern economic order which determines the lives of all individuals born into it with irresistible force. Weber points at the illusions of modern society which has lost the spirit of religion. On the other hand Emil Durkeim the French founding figure of sociology stated that society without a religious expression of its sense of purpose and coherence would not be sustainable. This influenced the young Ambedker in pursuing his search for a proper religious foundation for an egalitarian, caste free and fraternal society in India.[30] Weber treated religion as a key variable in understanding how society works. These and other classical theorists would have had difficulty conceptualizing a society in which religion did not play a major role, and they sought to understand that role. Popular conceptions of the time also attributed an important place in the culture of societies to religion, and this contributed to the attention paid to religion by early theorists. Durkheim believed that religion was a major factor leading to social solidarity, integration, and cohesion.[31] Max Weber formulated a three-component theory of stratification, with Social class, Social status and party (political)[32] as conceptually distinct elements.

Indian context/scenario

The economy of India is the third largest in the world as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP).[33] India's economy is diverse and encompasses agriculture, handicrafts, textile, manufacturing, and a multitude of services. Although two-thirds of the Indian workforce still earns their livelihood directly or indirectly through agriculture, services are a growing sector and are playing an increasingly important role of India's economy. India faces a burgeoning population and the challenge of reducing economic and social inequality. Poverty remains a serious problem, although it has declined significantly since independence, mainly due to the green revolution and economic reforms. India's economic history can be broadly divided into three eras, beginning with the pre-colonial period lasting up to the 17th century. The advent of British colonization started the colonial period in the 17th century, which ended with the independence in 1947. The third period stretches from independence in 1947 until the present.[34]


· Role of Religion in the Struggle against Poverty


Poverty does not consist only in a low economic status. It means hunger, disease, illiteracy, lack of shelter and privacy. It implies exclusion, discrimination, powerlessness, a feeling inferiority and sense of hopelessness. It is struggle for survival, being enslaved to seeking a crumb. It is criminal because it does not allow people to be people. It is a scar on our face; it is a denial of human rights and the gravest insult to human dignity[35]
Poverty in India cannot be interpreted totally as the result of underdeveloped technology and overpopulation, nor can struggle against it seen totally as a matter of economic growth. The point is that poverty is not primarily of underdevelopment but of an economic power structure, who share the values of affluence and consumerism the power deciding the direction of utilization of limited available technology, raw materials and energy and who therefore exploit the people. In the early period of the British rule, economy was a balanced integration between village industry and agriculture in a “need-based” structure, the kind of naked poverty and unemployment that we see today was not there. But this need based economy was destroyed and a modern “want-based” economy was landed, industrial and commercial aristocracy exploiting the people. High concentration of economic power, who’s very potential for growth is the source of mass poverty. One of the most disquieting features is the internal domination-dependence relationship, a kind of domestic imperialism. Any amount of sources whether internal or external, injected into such a system tends to strengthen prevailing non-egalitarian institutions, intensifying exploitation and aggravating the misery of the poor. Introduction of resources increases wealth but ends up by aggravating the poverty of the masses. Therefore, there is no simple solution to poverty through more of it.[36]

Ethics of the Market

Ethics and economics are not to be seen as distinct entities and there for it demands serious debates on issues pertaining to human survival. Economics is a human issue. The primary goal of economics is to promote life and sustain it. The entire market friendly economic system negates the basic thrust of this concept. Market has not place for equality. The market generates tremendous disparities in income and wealth. The market value will be money value, in other words, market values everything in monetary terms. Knowledge and health are turned into commodities in the global market. The essential function of market is buying and selling. In the free market system, freedom is not of human beings, but of commodities. A new consciousness is strengthening around us today a consciousness with market is its centre. The emerging market syndrome is based on the profit motive. The growth oriented economic development never produces social justice. This development does not create opportunities. It destroys what already exists. The free market has been elevated to the status of God and its institutions like World Bank have become churches. There is new messianism and false theology around the new fundamentalism of the market.
Economic equality to the Dalits
Ambedker identifies that Brahmanism and capitalism as the twin dangers of modern India. While Brahmanism is antagonistic to the liberation of Dalits, Capitalism would go to strengthen this process of caste antagonism. He held that state must play a key role in handling these two dangers and bring about economic equality and political liberty to the Dalits. Ambedkar proposed state socialism and mixed economy as the guarantees of the just economic life of the oppressed sections of Indian society.[37]
Globalization in India
While globalization will certainly help those who are better off, and it is bound to take a heavy toll on the poor. Despite its few benefits, it is increasingly leading to the marginalization and displacement of a vast number of powerless individuals and groups who cannot withstand the aggressive and competitive forces of the market economy together with the onslaught of the big national and multinational companies. In this process the marginalized poor and the unorganized rural and agricultural labours are the worst affected.[38] Some of the economists prove that globalization makes bad impacts in India. Globalization brings economic inequalities, mass impoverishment, crucial financial crisis, marginalization of the workers, peasants and farmers, economic domination of developed countries, internationalization of capitalism of developed countries and devaluation of currency. Liberalization is one of the consequences of globalization. Trade liberalization makes a lot of negative impact on the Indian small-scale industries and Indian agriculture. As an impact of economic globalization, biotechnology, which badly effects the environment and the livelihoods of the farmers, has been expanding as an industry. E.g. genetically modified organisms. Globalization carries with it several dehumanizing forces.[39]
Women and the Market
Women suffer indignities, humiliation, oppression and discrimination on account of centuries of patriarchal prejudices, attitudes and structures often sustained by religion and culture.[40] One can interpret markets in multiple manners since it involves situations of dominance and dependence in various forms. Economic relations affect women as the producer or as the worker in the market. The New Economic Policy was aimed at rapid transformation of the economy import-based economy into an export-oriented one and it did affect the women flock. [41] The danger of women losing out in the highly competitive job market induced by globalization looms large. Many women weavers today gave up their status as independent weavers and work under larger contractors. This again subjects them to other forms of exploitation, by the men who regulate hour work, sexual harassment by the employer, the contractor and the middlemen.[42]
Indian Village Economy
In the West Karl Marx may have been the first to enquire into the spiritual reasons behind the relative stagnation of Indian village economy. In his article for the New York Herald Tribune in the mid 19th century, Marx pointed out that the traditional village economy with its integration between agriculture and hand industry and its harmonious net-work of occupation coupled with slavery and caste had a simple idyllic character; but it was a stagnant “vegetative” social existence, based on “brutalizing worship of nature” with no awareness of man’s sovereignty over nature or his historical destiny. His answer to it was that the Western political and economic power had destroyed this social structure and that the inevitable struggle of India for national freedom and for the necessary advance of technological and social development would produce a new spirit.[43]
Max Weber in his study Religions of India came to a negative judgment regarding the capacity of classical Hinduism to provide an ethos for developing a modern urban industrial society in India – what he calls Capitalism. Hinduism could no provide meaning system that motivated people towards social change and technological development and capital accumulation. He sees Hindu ethos, especially the spirit of the caste system, as suppressive of the subjective and objective conditions for the emergence of non-conformity and dynamism which could have led to capitalism. Like Marx, Weber too, finds that the “other worldliness” of Hindu metaphysics and mysticism militates against the vision of and responsibility to historical future. Further, Hinduism is seen as having a tremendous capacity to domesticate internal prophetic protests like Buddhism and Jainism and tame external forces.[44]
Pastoral care and counseling response
The Role of the Priest in Social welfare
Social change is a matter of special concern to the clergy and they have their particular personal influence and obligation. In the public and official organization such as cooperatives, cottage industries, workers’ association, orphanages, schools, and other welfare centers/projects the role should be generally that of inspirer who inspires his people with the spirit of self-help and who links them with the technicians and officials of the government or other organizations. The priest who has at heart the needs of his people will go a long way with the permission of his authorities to help the poor people and to solve their elementary economic problems. That is why the priest is expected to have sufficient theoretical knowledge of the economic problems in mission/church lands. In the context of India, the role of the priest in parish welfare activities should be more direct and intense. The reason is that as a matter of fact that the need and want is urgent and widespread and the people who can help the parishioners are few untrained. In such circumstances it should be the role of the priests to take the initiative in organizing welfare services and social organizations to raise the standard of living of the people submerged in misery. In many cases, the priest is expected even to go round and collect money and shares for starting co-operatives or small industries. Social work activities are more useful than charitable activities and alms giving in the context of responsible place and works should depend on particular conditions and needs of the place.[45]
Mission of the Church toward Social Change
Mission of the church is to stand against all dehumanizing structures. Demolish exploitation and oppression of the common people. Church should participate in humanizing process, which is equal to participating in the suffering of God, and try to establish a just and equitable world on earth.[46] M.M.Thomas says that the interest of the church should be struggles for justice for the weak and the oppressed.[47] Awake the moral conscience of the community coupling with the agitation and organizing struggle of the poorer classes leading to their influence in the State structure and consequent State intervention in their interests and welfare.[48] Religion must help the poor with the spirit of revolt against conditions of inhumanity and poverty, to help the masses to become a self-reliant people responsible to their own social liberation. Church’s mission has to comprehend and spiritually sanction the sense of individual achievement and sense of social equality and concern for change to work for new forms of community. [49]Christians have to support whole-heartedly all efforts to strengthen the economic life of the villagers through the work of co-operative societies, the fight against usury and discover new ways of expressing the human values inherent in traditional village custom and methods.[50] Mission means being with poor and oppressed people and responding to their needs with sensitivity to the presence of God in all culture s and other religious traditions, and witnessing to the Kingdome of God through presence, solidarity, word economic well-being.[51]
Evaluation and Conclusion a critical outlook
The economics of religion: seeks to explain religious behavior from an economic perspective. In contrast to the sociology of religion[52], the economic approach rests upon the fundamental assumptions of economic analysis: maximizing behavior, stable preferences, and market equilibrium. Economic theories of religious behavior assume that people approach religion in the same way that they approach other objects of choice as in any other market. The economic freedom shows the religious freedom and economic freedom tend to go together. [53] The countries with the worst records of religious freedom also maintain a terrible economic record. New economic liberty and religious freedom suggest that religiously free societies encourage entrepreneurs whose new enterprises benefit themselves, their companies, employees, shareholders, consumers, stakeholders and the entire community. In other words, religiously free societies usually display the highest concentration of companies that generate prosperity and broad development. Closed religious systems foul economic development and stunt growth. Closed economic systems are unkind or worse to religious sentiments and practice. There is also another side to the reality i.e. the true spirituality can eradicate the corruption and violence.

· Economics and Religion (impact of religion on economic)

Religion broadly affects the economy through its influence on individual traits that make people more or less economically productive. Many religious beliefs were associated with good economic attitudes, where ‘good' is defined as conducive to higher per capita income and growth. The economic effects of religion are closely tied to belief than to practice: in fact, there is evidence that too much church attendance can have a negative effect on growth by taking time away from productive activity-informations.

Aleaz, Bonita.Women and the Market: Perspectives in the Wake of the Global Penetrating the Local in India”, Glocal in the Market Place.ed. A. Wati Longchar, Jorhat: South Asia Regional Solidarity Committee.

Bibliography 

Boas, Mervin Shinoj. Encounter Between Marxian Philosophy and Theology of Humanization in India. Delhi: ISPCK, 2007.

Bhushan, Vidya and D.K. Sachdeva, An Introducation to Sociology (including objective type questions), Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 2004.
Desrochers, John. Methods of Social Analysis. Banglore: Centre for Social Action publications, 1988.
Dietrch, Gabriele & Bas Weilenga. Towards Understanding Indian Society. Tiruvalla: Christian Sahitya Samithi, 2003.
Frank, Dobhim. “Economic Sociology”, Clifton D. Bryant and Dennis L. Peck (eds.), 21st Century Sociology A reference hand book, vol-1.London: Sage Publications, 2007.
Gollwitzer, Helmut. The Christian Faith and the Marxist Criticism of Religion. Translated by David Cairns, Edinburgh: The Saint Andrew Press, 1970.
Greorios, Paulos Mar. Science For Sane Societies. Madras: CLS, 1987.
Houtar, F. “Religion and Development in Asia”, Baguio Feres Seminar, 1976, cited in. John Desrochers, Methods of Social Analysis.Banglore : Centre for Social Action publications, 1988.

J.L, Handson. "Dictionary of Economics and Commerce", The English Language Book Society and Macdonald and Evens LTD, London, 1971(reprint). Cited in, John Desrochers, Methods of Social Analysis.Banglore : Centre for Social Action publications, 1988.
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CDROM

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Webliography

http://en.wikipeida.org/wiki/max_weber. 9/6/2007 10:25 AM

“Economy of India” http://www. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 9/6/2007 10:25 AM


Economic history of India and Timeline of the economy of India http://www. Wikipedia, the free

encyclopedia,9/6/2007 12:50.

http://www.religioeconomics.com/erel/s1-information/s14_QA.htm. 9/6/2007 12:50.



[1] Economy-Gk. Oikonomia means the household manager, managing private affairs especially expenses and the efficient use of the material resources, non material resources, and the structure of economic life in a country, area or period. Oikos means house.
[2] C.T. Kurian, The economy. An interpretative Introduction (New Delhi:Sage, 1992), p.20 cited by., Gabriele Dietrch and Bas Weilenga, Towards Understanding Indian Society, Revised edition, (Tiruvalla: Christian Sahitya Samithi, 2003) p.31.
[3] Economics and Religion, Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol.5, p.1 CDROM
[4] Economics and Religion, Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol.5, p.3 CDROM
[5] P. Mohan Larbeer, Ambedkar on religion (Madurai: ISPCK, 2003),p. 160.
[6] The submissive function speaks about the legitimation (religion supports the status quo), rationalization (explain the status quo), compensation (other worldly reward for the oppressed) and social control (influences social behavior by the promise of after life rewards and punishments). The prophetic revolutionary function protest against political-economic injustices and plea for a new society.
[7]R.N. Bellah, “Religious Evolution” in “Sociology of Religion. Selected reading”, R. Robertson (ed.), Penguin Books, 1972, (re-printed), p.263. cited in John Desrochers, Methods of Social Analysis (Banglore : Centre for Social Action publications, 1988) p.71.

[8] Houtart F., “Religion and Development in Asia, Baguio Feres Seminar, 1976, cited in. John Desrochers, Methods of Social Analysis (Banglore : Centre for Social Action publications, 1988) p.72. v
[9] Gabriele Dietrch and Bas Weilenga, Towards Understanding Indian Society, Revised edition, (Tiruvalla: Christian Sahitya Samithi, 2003) p.51.
[10] Capitalist economists consider land, capital, human labor and organization as the factors of production. The law of supply and demand is moreover said to establish an equilibrium in the production process, with the market serving as a balance mechanism. Here the human goals of economic activities are fulfilled or not is not questioned.
11) Marxist economics springs from a clear ideological stand in favor of quality and solidarity. Reacting against the private ownership of the means of production which lies at the root of economic and social inequalities, this approach criticizes the capitalist theories of profit and values and builds up that of surplus values, it ultimately opposes both the wage system and the division of society into classes. This is why the Marxist approach to economics is particularly apt at exposing the structural mechanisms of exploitation.
[12] Handson J.L., "Dictionary of Economics and Commerce", The English Language Book Society and Macdonald and Evens LTD, London, 1971(reprint). Cited in, John Desrochers, Methods of Social Analysis (Banglore : Centre for Social Action publications, 1988) p.43.
13] John Desrochers, Methods of Social Analysis (Banglore : Centre for Social Action publications, 1988) p.49.
[14] Adjective, (often disapproving) connected with ordinary people who earn money by working, especially those who do not own any property.
[15] Mervin Shinoj Boas, Encounter Between Marxian Philosophy and Theology of Humanization in India ( Delhi, ISPCK, 2007) , p. 62-63.
[16] Mervin Shinoj Boas, p. 91.
[17] Bonita Aleaz, “ Women and the Market: Perspectives in the Wake of the Global Penetrating the Local in Indiain Global in the Market Place, edited by A. Wati LongcharSouth, Asia Regional Solidarity Committee, Jorhat, P. 38.
[18] M.M.Thomas, “Role of Religion in the Struggle Against Poverty in India in Religion, Ideology and Counter-Culture Edited by, Philip Mathew and Ajit Muricken, (Bangalore: Horizon Books, 1987), p. 107.
[19] Paulos Mar Greorios, Science For Sane Societies, (Madras, CLS, 198…..,) p.55.
[20] Dobhim Frank, “Economic Sociology”, Clifton D. Bryant and Dennis L. Peck (eds.), 21st Century Sociology A reference hand book, vol-1, (London: Sage Publications, 2007), p.319,322.
[21] The origin of the opium simile was first investigated by Reinhart Seeger. He found Bruno Bauer as the creator of the word, Moses Hess and Karl Marx as the imitators and popularizes and indeed the reference to Bauer is to his easy Der Christliche Staat and unsere Zeit in which Bauer says that the theological organization in the most Christian state was able to carry matters so far through its opium like influence that it finds no more trace of resistance and all the instincts of free humanity…. Are lulled to sleep. Cited in., Helmut Gollwitzer, The Christian Faith and the Marxist Criticism of Religion, Translated by David Cairns, Edinburgh: The Saint Andrew Press, 1970, p.15.
[22] Marx/engels, collected works, Vol.3,p.175. cited in, Gabriele Dietrch and Bas Weilenga, Towards Understanding Indian Society, Revised edition, (Tiruvalla: Christian Sahitya Samithi, 2003) p.67.
[23] D. Earl miller “violence”, Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling, p.1305, CDROM.
[24] Y.V. Satyanarayana, Marx and Gandhi A comparative Study of social philosophies, Visakhapatnam: Andhra University press, 1988, p.33-34.
[25] Y.V. Satyanarayana, p.53.
[26] Mervin Shinoj Boas, Encounter Between Marxian Philosophy and Theology of Humanization in India, p.62-63.
[27] Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (April 21, 1864 – June 14, 1920) was a German political economist and sociologist who is considered one of the founders of the modern study of sociology and public administration. His major works deal with rationalisation in sociology of religion and government, but he also contributed much in the field of economics. Along with Karl Marx and Émile Durkheim, Weber is regarded as one of the founders of modern sociology, although in his times he was viewed primarily as a historian and an economist.
[28] http://en.wikipeida.org/wiki/max_weber. 9/6/2007 10:25 AM
[29] Calvinist faith is the theological system of John Calvin and his followers marked by strong emphasis on the sovereignty of God, the depravity of mankind and the doctrine of predestination.[30]S. M. Tipton, “sociology of religion”, Dictionary of pastoral care and counseling, p.1197 CDROM.[31] http://en.wikipeida.org/wiki/max_weber. 9/6/2007 10:25 AM
[32] Social class is based on economically determined relationship to the market (owner, renter, employee etc.). Status is based on non-economical qualities like honour, prestige and religion. Party refers to affiliations in the political domain.
[33] “Economy of India” http://www. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,
[34]Economic history of India and Timeline of the economy of India http://www. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,9/6/2007 12:50 AM
[35] John Desrochers CSC, The Social Teaching of the Church in India, p.37.
[36] M.M.Thomas, p. 106.
[37] P.Mohan Larbeer, Ambedkar on religion, (Madurai:ISPCK, 2003), p.85.
[38] John Desrochers CSC, The Social Teaching of the Church in India ( Bangalore:Centre for Social action, 2006),p.39.
[39] Mervin Shinoj Boas, Encounter Between Marxian Philosophy and Theology of Humanization in India (Delhi: ISPCK, 2007), P. 109-110.
[40] John Desrochers CSC, p.16.
[41] Bonita Aleaz, “ Women and the Market: Perspectives in the Wake of the Global Penetrating the Local in India” in Glocal in the Market Place, edited by A. Wati LongcharSouth, Asia Regional Solidarity Committee, Jorhat, Pg. 38.
[42] Bonita Aleaz, Pg. 38-39.
[43] M.M.Thomas, “Role of Religion in the Struggle Against Poverty in India in Religion, Ideology and Counter-Culture Edited by Philip Mathew and Ajit Muricken, (Bangalore: Horizon Books, 1987), p. 109.
[44] M.M.Thomas, p. 110.
[45] Victor .O.C.D, Social Pastoral Orientation in India, (Bombay:St.Paul Publications,1966),p.315-316
[46] Mervin Shinoj Boas, Encounter Between Marxian Philosophy and Theology of Humanization in India Delhi: ISPCK, 2007), p. 65.
[47] Mervin Shinoj Boas, p. 100.
[48] M.M.Thomas, “Role of Religion in the Struggle Against Poverty in India in Religion, Ideology and Counter-Culture Edited by Philip Mathew and Ajit Muricken, (Bangalore: Horizon Books, 1987), p. 106.
[49] M.M.Thomas, p. 109.
[50] The Witness of the Churches in the Midst of Social Change- The Survey of Ecumenical Social Thought- Papers for Preparatory Reading,, (Malaya: The Assembly of the East Asia Christian Conference), 1959, P.67.
[51] John Desrochers CSC, The Social Teaching of the Chu8rch in India ( Bangalore:Centre for Social action, 2006),p.39
[52] All other social-scientific approaches to religion seek to explain religious belief, behavior, and institutions in human terms.
[53] http://www.religioeconomics.com/erel/s1

Binu Peniel

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