**RESEARCH DESIGN**

**INTRODUCTION**

**WHAT IS RESEARCH DESIGN**

**BASIC CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH DESIGN**

**1.**

**Variable**

**2.**

**Independent and Dependent Variables**

*predictor variable*. Essentially, dependent variable is the behavioral or attitudinal measurement made by the experimenter. The dependent variable gets its name because it depends on what does with the independent variable. According to Best (1984), the dependent variables are the conditions or characteristics that appear, disappear, or change an experimenter introduces, removes, or changes independent variables.[11] The variable whose values are predicted by the independent variable, whether or not caused by it. In non-experimental research, instead of dependent variable some authors use the term

*criterion variable*or

*outcome variable*. Most commonly, however, dependent variable is used both in experimental and non-experimental research.

**3.**

**Extraneous variables**

*extraneous variables*.[12] Extraneous variables are those uncontrolled variables that may have a significant influence upon the dependent variable. Many research conclusions are invalidated by the influence of these extraneous variables. Extraneous, in this context, does not mean unimportant. Sometimes it is called as

**. Researchers usually try to control for extraneous variables by experimental isolation, by randomization, or by statistical technical techniques such as analysis of covariance or partial correlation.**

*nuisance variables***4.**

**Confounding variables**

**variable(s). Confounding variable is a variable that obscures the effects of another. If the independent variable is confounded with a secondary variable, the experimenter cannot separate the effects of the two variables on the dependent measure.[13]**

**5.**

**Experimental group and control group**

**an experimental hypothesis- testing research when a group is exposed to usual conditions, it is termed a**

**control**

**group but when the group is exposed to some novel or special treatment condition, it is termed an experimental**

**group.**

**The experimental group is the group which receives some treatment in an experiment. The experimental group is exposed to the influence of the factor under consideration. Data collected about subjects in the experimental group are compared with data about subjects in a control group who received no treatment and/or another experimental group who received a different treatment. In true experimental research, participants are randomly assigned to certain conditions -i. e., they have an equal chance of being assigned to either the experimental or the control group.**

**6.**

**Quantitative and Qualitative studies**

**is generally defined as research built around the collection of analysis of the accounts or stories that people offer regarding their experience. Qualitative studies are those in which the description of observations is not numerically expressed in quantitative terms. The data of qualitative research is, therefore, 'words' rather 'numbers'. However, to describe qualitative research merely in terms of an absence of quantification and statistics is to miss the point. The methods used to collect qualitative data are interviews, case studies, open-ended questionnaires, projective techniques, documentary research, and participant observation and so on. The various approaches to analyzing qualitative data are grounded theory analysis, phenomenological methods, and narrative analysis. The quantitative researchers typically use techniques such as surveys, questionnaires, and structured observations. Using statistics, they analyze the information they have collected to see if their ideas about patterns or relationships are supported by the facts as revealed in their research.[15]**

# 7.Probabilistic Equivalence

*perfectly*the odds that we will find a difference between two groups.

#
8. Random Selection**[16]** & Assignment

**Random**

*selection*is how you draw the sample of people for your study from a population. R

**andom**

*assignment*is how you assign the sample that you draw to different groups or treatments in your study. It is possible to have

*both*random selection and assignment in a study. It is important to randomly select which participants will be included in each group. This ensures that any difference in the outcome will not be due to the selection effects.[17] Random selection is related to sampling.[18] Therefore it is most related to the external validity (or generalizability) of your results. After all, we would randomly sample so that our research participants better represent the larger group from which they're drawn. Random assignment is most related to design. In fact, when we randomly assign participants to the treatments we have, by definition, an experimental design.[19] Therefore, random assignment is most related to internal validity. After all, we randomly assign in order to help assure that our treatment groups are similar to each other (i.e., equivalent) prior to the treatment.

**EMPIRICAL RESEARCH DESIGN IN PASTORAL CARE AND COUNSELING**

There are basically three Methods of Empirical Research. In pastoral care and counseling, there are three predominant methods of gathering information: the case study, correlation[22], and experimental. All three involve observations of behavior. These methods differ in terms of the research questions they ask, the types of observations that are made, the circumstances surrounding the observations, and how the data from the observations are handled.

**Case studies.**In the case study method, an in-depth analysis of a single individual using qualitative terms and concepts is frequently used. The research question may highlight an unusual problem or demonstrate how to work with a particular individual.[23]

**Correlation studies.**The correlation method examines the relationship between two or more variables, quantitatively looking at the extent one variable changes with another variable. The research question is usually stated in the form: “Do variable A and variable B go in the same or opposite direction?” Usually the closer the correlation coefficient is to + 1 or -1 the more statistically significant the findings. This approach is useful for gathering information about how variables relate to each other but does not lend itself to making cause and effect statements.[24] Another popular form of co-relational research used in pastoral care and counseling is an opinion survey. The question asked here is to what extent certain options correlate, or go together with sex, social class, church affiliation, or political affiliation.

**3. Experimental studies.**The experimental method looks at the quantitative relationship between one or more conditions which are systematically varied and are expected to cause a change in a person’s behavior. This approach represents the greatest degree of control, which in research refers to systematically varying, randomizing, or holding constant the conditions under which observations are made. The purpose of having control within research is to reduce the number of alternative explanations for why and how behavior is influenced. In experimental research, the condition which is directly varied is called the independent variable. The dependent variable is thought to depend on the conditions varied by the experimenter. [25] An experimental hypothesis is a statement about the effect of the independent variable upon the dependent variable.[26] (For example, check the footnote)

**CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH DESIGN**

**1.**

**Exploratory or Formulative design (study)**

**type of research designs looks for patterns, ideas, or hypotheses, rather than research that tries to test or confirm hypotheses. In any explorative studies, the purpose is to formulate a problem for further study that is to formulate a hypothesis. An exploratory study has other functions also. It increases the researcher's familiarity with a phenomenon that s/he wants to study, or with the situation in which the study is to be done. It also set up priorities for further research, explains more clearly the concepts, and gathers information about the practical possibility of carrying out further research or provides some idea of the problems that are considered most urgent by the people in that field. The exploratory study may also be considered as the first step in a**

*continuous research process*. It helps the researcher to design a structured investigation. The purpose of explorative studies is to achieve new insights into a phenomenon. The reason for aiming new insights or ideas is to formulate a more precise problem or to develop hypotheses for further research.

**2.**

**Descriptive design (study)**

**3.**

**Ex- Post Facto Research Design**

*ex-post facto research design*. Causes will be studied after (post) they have had their effect. Therefore, any non- experimental research design that takes place after the conditions to be studied have occurred or such research in which there is a post-test but not pre-test is considered as an 'ex- post facto research design'

**Experimental Design**

*assigns subjects to conditions*rather than

*observing in natural occurring*. Experimental studies are more powerful than non-experimental studies if one has to study and discover the causal relationship among the variables. Through control and randomization, the potential confounding effects can be removed. Experimenters manipulate certain environmental condition, stimuli, and treatment, and observe how the condition or the behavior of the subject is affected or changed. Selection of the design is based on the purposes of the experiment, the type of variables to be manipulated, and the conditions or the limiting factors under which it is conducted. The design deals with practical problems such as how subjects are to be selected for experimental and control groups, the way the variables are to be manipulated and controlled, the way the extraneous variables are to be controlled, how observations are to be made, and the type of statistical analysis to be employed in interpreting data relationships. The adequacy of experimental designs is judged by the degree to which they eliminate or minimize threats to experimental validity. So also experimental studies become conclusive only when there is direct manipulation and also when the principles of control, randomization, and comparison are used. There are various types of experimental designs such as pre-test- post-test control group design, post-test control group design, single factor multiple group design and so on. A discussion on these is beyond the scope of this paper.

**5.**

**Quasi-Experimental Designs**

**A quasi-experimental design is one that looks a bit like an experimental design but lacks the key ingredient - random assignment.[32]**

**6.**

**Factorial Design**

*factorial*for structure for ease of analysis.

**These structures can be simple or complex, depending upon the nature and number of variables chosen. Research designs with two or more independent variables or factors, each studied at two or more levels. The goal of the factorial design is to determine whether the factors combine to**

**[33]***produce interaction effects*. In factorial designs, the influence of more than one independent variable upon more than one dependent variable can be observed. In factorial designs, a

**factor**

**is a major independent variable.[34] The factorial design has several important features. First, it has great flexibility in exploring or enhancing the “signal” (treatment) in our studies. Whenever we are interested in examining treatment variations, factorial designs should be strong candidates as the designs of choice. Second, factorial designs are efficient. Instead of conducting a series of independent studies we are effectively able to combine these studies into one. Finally, factorial designs are the only effective way to examine interaction effects.[35**

**7.**

**The survey Method design**

**8. Cross-Sectional or correlation design**

**Formulation of a Research Problem or the steps in Research Design**

**1.**

**Selection of a research area, sensing and formulation of a problem**

**2.**

**Evaluating, defining or the statement of the problem**

**the proposed problem can be considered appropriate, several searching questions should be raised. Such as is this the type of problem that can be effectively solved through the process of research, Is the problem significant, Is the problem a new one? or Is the answer already available, are valid and reliable data gathering devices and procedures available, Are pertinent data accessible. Once the problem is located, it must be stated in unambiguous terms. If it is to serve as a guide in planning, investigating and interpreting the results, it is essential that the problem be stated in precise specific terms. The problem may be stated preferably in one sentence and in some cases it is a restatement, in a modified form, of the title.[41] The important independent and dependent variables of the research should be identifiable in the statement of the problem.**

**3.**

**Formulation of Hypotheses**

**the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis**. The null hypothesis is denoted by

*Ho*and the alternative hypothesis by

*H1*. Null hypotheses are formulated on the basis of theoretical background and our own previous casual observations. Before we start our research, we start with an assumption of a correlation. We are not at this stage sure about the existence or non-existence of a correlation between two factors. e.g., stress and education or study habits and examination results. In its simplest form null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference between the two groups with respect to some characteristics. The null hypothesis is akin to the legal principle that a man is innocent until he is proved guilty. It constitutes a challenge and the function of a research is to give facts a chance to refute this challenge.

**. Any hypothesis other than a null hypothesis is called an**

*an original hypothesis***. So when the null hypothesis is rejected we accept the alternative hypothesis.**

*alternative hypothesis***is another term for the alternative hypothesis. An alternative hypothesis is that one hopes indirectly to substantiate by rejecting the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis is the logical opposite of the null hypothesis. Rejecting the null hypothesis shows that the alternative or research hypothesis may be true. Therefore, the null hypothesis is a hypothesis that the investigator hopes to reject, and thereby substantiating its opposite. The alternative hypothesis and null hypothesis together constitute the framework for the statistical testing of the hypothesis. An alternative hypothesis may be stated as males are more adjusted than females (H1) the null hypothesis may be stated as the males and females do not differ in adjustment (Ho).**

*The research hypothesis*##
CONCLUSION

**BIBLIOGRAPHY**

*Research of Social workers an introduction to*methods (2

^{nd}edition), Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 2002.

*Methodological Issues in Theological Disciplines,*Banglore: South Asia Theological Research Institute, 2002.

*Qualitative inquiry and Research design choosing among five approaches (second Edition),*New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2007.

*Research design Qualitative Quantitative and Mixed Methods approaches,*Second Edition, New Delhi: Sage publications, 2003.

*Research Methods in Behavioral Sciences*, New Delhi: Macmillan India Limited, 1997.

*How to, Student Handbooks Research methods- How to design and conduct a successful project,*Mumbai: Jaico Publishing House, 2002.

*Manuel for research and writers,*Bang lore: BTESSE, 1999.

*Handling Qualitative data A practical guide,*New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2005.

*Methodology and techniques of social research*, New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers, distributors, 2001.

*Surveys in Social Research Fifth Edition,*Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 2003.

**Webiliography and CDROM**

**Unpublished Material**

*Methodology and techniques of social research*, New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers, distributors, 2001, p.183.

[5] Jospal Singh,

*Methodology and techniques of social research,*p.183.

[6] John W. Creswell; Qualitative inquiry and Research design choosing among five approaches (second Edition), New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2007, p41.

[7] John W. Creswell; p42.

[8] John W. Creswell; p42.

**Empirical research**is a systematic investigation aimed at finding new or substantiating facts and relationships between facts (or factors) that help further the understanding of a problem or problems and the rules or interactions that govern them.

[21] J. L. Florell “Empirical research in pastoral care and counseling” Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling, p.354 CDROM

**Co-variation**of variables where values of one variable differ systematically by values of another variable, the variables are correlated or associated. Correlation does not prove causation.

[23] J. L. Florell,“Empirical research in pastoral care and counseling”, Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling, p.354 CDROM

[24] J. L. Florell, “Empirical research in pastoral care and counseling “Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling, p.354, CDROM

[25] J. L. Florell, “Empirical research in pastoral care and counseling”, Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling, p.355, CDROM

*Editor's Notes*. Advances in quasi-experimental design and analysis. New Directions for Program Evaluation Series, Number 31, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Cited in. http://www.socialresearch methods. net/kb/constval.php.9/8/2007 9:27 PM.

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