A POST MODERN APPRAISAL ON THE PSYCHOSOMATIC HEALING IN THE CHARISMATIC MILIEU: IT’S IMPLICATION IN PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC ALTERNATIVES

Simen's quadriform

1. Christian charismatic movements (CM) in a wider context

2. Characteristics emphasis of CM

3. Psychosomatic healing

4. Post-modern appraisal

5. Psychotherapeutic alternatives

Glossary

Psychosomatic healing: Psyche (soul) and soma (body), healing describe the disorders of human beings which are considered to be due to complex mind/body/spirit interactions, including reactions to stress. Psychosomatic healing is defined as the healing of one's own body by means of one's own thoughts, beliefs, or other mental states or activities. In this sense all diseases are “psychosomatic.”

Psychotherapy: Greek words psuche (mind or soul) and therapeuo (one who serves the gods or heals) and denotes attempts to heal the human mind or soul.

Deconstruction: dismantling the seeming coherence or de-centering with unmasking the problematic nature of all centers.

Problem solving therapy: One of the latest trend in the field of psychology with the unique short term framework.

Cognitive therapy: cognitive therapy lays stress on the functioning of the individual’s rational and cognitive capabilities. The Transactional analysis and rational emotive therapy etc. emphasize cognitive restructuring.

Introduction

The effect of psychological factors on mental health has created a tremendous impact in the field of academic social science. The Life can only be understood backward but it must be lived forward. The term “psychosomatic,” as now used in medicine and psychology, intended to convey the idea that all health disorders result from a complex interaction between heredity and environment, nature and nurture. Indeed, it is difficult to think of a disease or health problem that is entirely physiological or entirely mental. In this sense all diseases are psychosomatic. In current thinking illness is understood as a complex interaction of physical- physiological (Soma), psychological (mind), sociological and spiritual factors. The medical science’ monopoly over the sick is seriously doubted within the holistic healing frame work. This paper is an attempt to define the psychosomatic healing within the charismatic characteristic milieu and to find out its implication in psychotherapy with a postmodern assessment.

  1. Christian charismatic movement in a wider framework

Charismatic movements are not new in our social milieu. The word ‘charisma’ can be interpreted as the power of a person to stimulate his followers. It can be considered as the special personal qualities or powers claimed by and for an individual a religious or a political leader, making him or her capable of influencing large number of people who may become the followers of this person.[1] Thus a charismatic movement is founded on the charismatic power of person who escorts it and they are of several types but there are two major types. First one refers to religious structured ideological based charismatic movements and second those who don’t have any religious bounding called non-religious charismatic movements, but are mainly concentrated on improving health and train people to achieve a better life style.[2] In the Hindu religion the charismatic authorities are considered as the human god but in Christianity the leaders of the movements are not considered as god but as luminal personalities and ionization of founders or leaders through the propagation of their personal splendor, healing power and their role of medications as divinely inspired individuals.

It is difficult to compress the meaning of charismatic movement into a single statement. It refers to the emerging trends within the domain of religion, and having a different expression from the existing traditional religious organizations in terms of practice and performance. We consider the Christian charismatic movements as a continuation of the Pentecostal movement and it a phenomenon found in all denominations including the Catholic Church. As in the Pentecostal movements the followers of the charismatic movement gives much more importance to the Holy Bible. In other words it is a spiritual renewal movement for the churches, stressing the doctrine of the Holy Spirit, a Christian variation of the world wide religious upsurges found in all religions and cultures i.e. during the period of 1960s and 70s there emerged prophetic, Zionist Churches in Africa, Afro-Brazilian Churches in South America, and Various religious reform movements in India, Jepan and Korea.[3] Along with this, we can observe some other catalysts like, changes in the social order and the political protest in connection with civil rights of Black Americans, the Vietnam War, the hippie life style, drugs, the secular commune movement, and lastly the charismatic influence of human gods. This movement also entered into the Catholic Church in a big way in the 1960s in the United States, when it emerged out of the activities of various prayer groups which were influenced by the Pentecostal stress on the Holy Spirit. Since then, the movement has spread to all part of the Catholic World.[4] From 1980 onwards, Charismatic movements inspired and influenced by the Pentecostal movement began to flourish in Kerala. The charismatic movement has both sociological and religious implications. Some scholars have interpreted charismatic movements as new religious movement.[5]

Charismatic movement has two distinctive characters such as they have ‘mass appeal’ and they are ‘of the people’. The charismatic religion is taught not by theologians in seminaries, rather appeals to a wide variety of people of no special theological sophistication out side the context of Sunday morning worship in the church.[6] They are of two types such as conventions or mass religious meetings conducted in the traditional churches and movements emerging outside the traditional church background with a local origin showing some characteristic features of Pentecostal movement.[7]

Kottayam can be considered as an extended pilgrimage centre, with over 50 temples and 70 churches and a number of Mosques. While considering the Christian denominations we have Orthodox Syrian churches, Catholic Churches, Marthoma Churches, Jacobite Churches and many Pentecostal churches along with independent Pentecostal groups. In addition to this the following number of Pentecostal Institutionalized charismatic movements emerged in Kottayam district alone, 2000-2001- fifteen, 2002-2003- twenty one, 2004-2005- twenty two, 2006 – 17.[8]

1.1.Defining charisma


The term ‘charisma’ is from the vocabulary of the early Christian church where it means the ‘gift of grace’ which was fundamental concept for Paul who expressed as God’s spontaneous, unmerited gift of divine love which was necessary for man’s redemption.[9] In theology a charismatic experience is a subjective mystical experience of an objective grace or gift of the spirit given to an individual. A charismatic leader, as in politics or the military, is one who has a personal quality, a magic of personality, or more personal gift, which elicits popular loyalty or enthusiasm from followers.[10]

Max weber placed charisma as an ideal type that legitimizes the authority of the charismatic person. Authority legitimized by charisma rests on the devotion of followers to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of the leader as well as on the normative order sanctioned by them. Weber defined charisma as: A certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which he is apart from ordinary men (women) and treated as endowed with super natural, super-human, or at least specifically exceptional power or qualities. These, as such, are not accessible to the ordinary person, but are regarded as of divine origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of them the individual concerned is treated as a leader. In primitive circumstances this peculiar kind of deference is paid to prophet to people with a reputation for therapeutic or legal wisdom, to leaders in the hunt, and heroes in war.[11]

  1. Special characteristics emphasis in the charismatic movements

The characteristics like sin, glossolalia, worship as performative religious experience and practice of miraculous healing are important to deal with:

According to Oomen C. Thomas, ‘The doctrine of sin is in a way the negative presupposition of the whole of Christian faith and theology,’ the reality of sin has cast the economy of salvation in the form of a solution to the problem of sin.[12] Sin is considered as social constructed condition, and the concept of sin is known as sin only because there is a salvation from sin. Sin is socially culturally defined, and has religious and theological dimensions.

Virginia H. Hine, state Pentecostal Glossolalia or tongue speech,’ towards a functional interpretation’ analyses the practice of speaking in tongue in a functional perspective. [13] She concludes that this act is a component in the generation of commitment and provides powerful motivation for attitudinal and behavioral changes in the direction of group ideals. While interviewing the charismatic devotees it is observed that they are becoming more confident in their life and have behavioral and attitudinal changes as a result of the worship. The devotees are showing a positive attitude towards themselves and others through speaking in glossolalia. Speaking in tongues or ‘glossolalia’ or ‘is meaningless to those who are outside this experience and consider these words as the gift of Holy Spirit. Thy call it as spiritual awaking, which is the most precious goal of all who approaches the charismatic movement. Those who experience spiritual awaking have the feeling that they are near to God, and so will hear their prayers and will fulfill it. Here one can view a kind of extreme confidence in devotees. This hysterical condition is experienced in very meeting. During this highly emotional condition of mind they make prophesies. Speaking in tongues is considered as a significant aspect of the charismatic worship.

In the ‘Ritual Expectation in Pentecostal healing Experience’, by William M. Clements, explains that three factors operate in the healing ritual. They are the presence of spirit filled agent of divine healing, faith on the part of the subject and the observance of the healing ritual. In the case of the charismatic movement also we cannot avoid the presence of these elements. Healing environment is created by the subjects, faith in derived charisma. The spirit filled agent, the leader of the movement, through him the derived charismatic acts. The performative worship acts as the healing ritual. Anther thing to be observed in the case of charismatic movement is the practice of healing in an ‘electronic religious’ [14]space or

‘Sacred place’[15]. The charismatic leaders have two type of interaction, one is the on stage behavior which is easily shared with the outside world, the second one is the backstage behavior which is shared with a chosen few after developing an intimate relationship. The social behavior is somewhat analogous to theatrical drama.[16]

Brayan Turner analyses the intricate relation between human body and society. He discusses the importance of body in a Christian tradition. The body is very much deep-rooted in the symbolism of sinfulness and sinfulness is considered as the conflict between body and soul. The sacrifice of Christ’s body had produced a beneficial supply of healing charisma, which the Church stored up in treasury of merit and which could be redistributed through confessional absolution and through the wine and bread of holy Eucharist. Sacraments are considered as having healing meaning.[17]

According to E.E. Uzukwu, belivers’ motion and gestures, human rhythmic movement are bound to an ethnic experience. Consequently praises and worships, which display the assembled body of believers before god or spirits, have meaning within an ethnic group. He emphasizes on the ethnic basis of human gestures. He also highlights the principal function of gestures as creating or recreating community. These could be used in understanding the performative worship of charismatic movement. The performative element of the worship has its importance and meaning only within the community of charismatics.[18]

The English word ‘worship’ is a contraction of the original Anglo- Saxon word ‘worth-ship’. Thus originally to give worship to any one simply meant to accord him/her the proper recognition of his/her inherent dignity and value or to put in another way, to accord his/her worth or his/her worthiness.[19] Worship is broadly refers to the human response of praise, adoration, thanksgiving etc. Worship can be considered as a reciprocal activity in between God and human, speech and action/prayers towards God as well as of God to human.[20]

Erving Goffman emphasizes some aspects of the concept of ‘performance’, the way in which individual presents himself/herself to others and the way in which he/she guides and controls the impression they form of him/her, and the kinds of things he/she may not do while sustaining his/her performance before

them.[21] Goffman introduced a term ‘Front’ to refer the expressive equipments intentionally used by the performer, which includes ‘settings’ and ‘personal front’. Setting is the physical lay out where as the personal front are the features associated with the performer. The concepts can be deployed to analyze the performance of charismatic worship. [22]

Through out the history of eastern and western thought, the spiritual quality of musical experience has been associated with religious experience.[23] Among the humans, the gesture retains the characteristic of motion. It is the movement of the body; a measured movement. The pattern of this movement depends on place, time, and space. Our interest in the gesture is based on this characteristic of human movement as display of the body. We consider this display vital for the understanding of worship.[24] Through the symbolic interactions an oral culture is established. The oral world… never exists within a simply verbal context, as a written word does. Spoken words are always modification of a total, existential situation, which always engage the body. Bodily activity beyond mere vocalization is not adventitious or contrived in oral communication, but is nature and even inevitable.[25] The music played and its rhythm are found to be the initiators of the spirituality and spiritual awakening. It is found that music and rhythm constitutes the core of performative worship pattern.

There is a relation between body and the constituent elements of the performative worship and body is considered as a prominent entity in Christian milieu. So the concept of body has got great importance. Body is represented as the home or the living place of God so it is to be kept sacred. Since body is more vulnerable, it is necessary to retain its purity through worship. Body and music or rhythms are interconnected with changes of pitch, volume, tempo, rhythm and harmony. Music offers a wider variety of expression than words.[26]

While in the charismatic experience this condition, they are in their particular mental world and this state may lead them to feel that they are solving their problems. This is a trance stage in which devotees exercise prophesying, dancing, shouting, clapping hands, moving hands, shaking the entire body, trying to speak in tongue and experience healing. Here we can experience the relation between body (soma) and worship. People are experiencing catharsis (letting out the emotions). They do it through their body movement and gestures.

Healing ministry of the charismatic church as an important element of faith, faith healing[27] or miraculous healing can be defined as improving health in body, mind and spirit by means of prayer or other extra normal states of consciousness, usually occurring apart from orthodox medicine and consider miraculous.[28] William M. Clements in his work ‘Pentecostal Healing experience’ says that the necessary elements for a Pentecostal healing are the presence of a spirit-filled believer, faith on the part of the subject and observance of ritual guidelines. [29] Sickness is not just a body condition, or any imbalance of the body, but it is also related to mind. In other words sickness can be defined as a conflict in the mind that displaced on to the body. [30] That is why, in a highly excited condition of the mob and the emotional state of mind, the devotees experiences the healing effect. The mind is the cause of every disease, so the diseases can be termed as psycho-somatic diseases, and curing the mental tension can cure sickness. Moreover, on observation of the people who come there for healing would suggests that majority are suffering from rheumatic fever, headache and body pain etc.. We consider these as psycho-somatic diseases. Moreover, in a religious space that induces hallucination, the words of the healer and prayers made them to believe or accept in their mind that they are going to be healed. This strong belief itself results in their healing. Since sickness is a problem of guilt in the mind, healing must be of the mind as well, for problems can be undone only at their source. [31]

  1. Psycho-somatic healing

Psycho refers to mind and somatic refers to body; the term psychosomatic means the mind making the body ill or illnesses which have been created physically within the body by derangement of the mind.[32] A disorder that involves both mind and body is called a psychosomatic illness. In other words, the illness may be emotional or mental in origin but have physical symptoms. Psychosomatic illnesses are not imaginary. They are physical disorders in which both emotions and thought patterns play a central role, and develop when a person's disease-fighting ability is weakened due to stress. All illnesses can be considered to be psychosomatic. That is, they inevitably involve the mind's reaction (psyche) to a physical (soma) illness. However, in some illnesses, psychological factors seem to play a particularly important part. They can influence not only the cause of the illness, but can also worsen the symptoms and affect the course of the disorder. It is these illnesses that are termed psychosomatic disorders.[33]

The effect of psychological factors on our health has been recognized for a long time. When the organic disease or damage does not account for the symptoms psychological factors play a role in causing or maintaining the symptoms. Some of the more common symptoms of concern to this group of clients include chest pains, gastrointestinal problems, headaches, backache, fatigue, pain, unexplained physical sensations such as pins and needles, or breathlessness. Such problems and the accompanying distress may also occur in people with diagnosed devoted to theoretical issues.[34] The problems which originally had a physical cause can later be maintained by psychological factors. There is also the possibility that so called medically unexplained physical symptoms may later turn out to have a measurable organic basis. A large portion around 30 to 80 percent, of people attending general practitioners and medical outpatient clinics have symptoms which cannot be clearly medically diagnosed. [35]

"Experts estimate that psychosomatic illnesses account for up to 70 percent of man's (human being) ills, including being too fat or too thin, migraines, allergies and other afflictions not strictly caused by physical reasons."[36] All the cases had received treatment of their symptoms, from a physical healer, without any reduction or improvement but a worsening in the condition as time went on. Spiritual and Mental Stress (psychosomatic), cause a large proportion of physical and mental illnesses, experienced by individuals. These physical symptoms are then diagnosed by the Medical Doctor and Psychiatrists etc and treated with physical treatments. (Medication, operations, chemotherapy etc.). As the medical model mainly deals with the physical symptoms and has virtually no cures for these illnesses, and never will, they become acute or chronic and need long-term treatment. When the Spiritual and Mental aspects of the psychosomatic illness or injury are handled with different forms of Psychotherapy, the symptoms improve and in many cases cease to exist. All illness should be handled with Spiritual and Mental Therapies or psychotherapy if possible, as medication or drugs are not needed to get improvement and it has no side effects. The improvement is rapid, as after therapy the person is aware that his/her condition has improved. Many operations are not needed when the above psychotherapies are used on the physical or mental condition or problem. Work stress can be lessened quickly without medications. All injuries, healing of them can be sped up. Many other problems can be improved by increasing a person’s abilities and education to cope with life problems. [37]

The apparent mystery of psychosomatic healing can be traced to two underlying philosophical enigmas: the mind-body relationship and efficient causation as real influence, neither of which can be resolved empirically. An overview of the current mind-body debate in contemporary philosophy is presented, in which the dualists and materialists, the two major contenders in this debate, are shown to have succeeded in refuting each other. Accordingly, we must reject both positions. The idealist alternative, the prevailing paradigm among advocates of mental healing, is also examined, and it too is shown to be inadequate.

The apparent mystery of mental healing, as well as the presumption that it must somehow be supernatural, are both attributed to modern philosophy's attempt to understand efficient causation and the mind-body relationship in terms of substance-and-attribute thinking. To understand either efficient causation in general, or mind-body interaction in particular, we must change the context of the discussion from one of substance and attribute to one of process and creativity. Whitehead's philosophical model, in that it addresses this point directly, is therefore an excellent starting point in unraveling the mystery of psychosomatic healing.[38]

The client who are suffering from anxiety or depression, hypochondriasis or health anxiety, somatoform disorders (last more than 6 month without physical problems) are some of the psychological classification of the psychosomatic disorder.

  1. Post modernism appraisal

Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. Nevertheless, most agree that postmodern ideas have influenced philosophy, art, critical theory, literature, architecture, design, marketing/business, interpretation of history, and culture since the late 20th century. Post modernity, a separate term, describes social and cultural conditions connected to the era in which postmodernism arose. Here an attempt is made to find an appraisal with psychosomatic healing with the characteristics charismatic milieu.

4.1.Mind body Dualism


In the seventeenth century Rene Descartes based his view of nature on fundamental division into two separate and independent realms; that of mind (res cogitans) and that of matter (res extensa). This Cartesian division allowed scientist to treat matter as dead and completely separate from them and to see the material world as a multitude of different objects assembled into a huge machine. This world view made a tremendous influence on classical psychics and general western way of thinking.[39] With his well-known dictum "Cogito, ergo sum" ("I think, therefore I am"), Descartes opened up what is called the modern period of philosophy. The term modern, in this case, indicates the belief that the unshakable foundation of all knowledge lies in the thinking subject. By isolating the subject as what alone is real, Descartes ushered in the era of subjectivism, with its concomitant dualisms of mind-body, mind-matter, and subject-object—dualisms that contemporary philosophers are still struggling to overcome and that permeate our everyday language and life.[40] Mind body duality is closely related to these two presuppositions is another, according to which nature inside man is wholly different from nature outside. This is related to Descartes's well-known and sharp division between the res extensa (realm of extension) and res cogitans (realm of thinking). The former is the realm of the body; it is the material domain of nature. The latter is the realm of the soul, which for Descartes is the same as the mind. Nature is only material and external. What is internal is merely subjective—in the sense of being personal, private, shifting, and unreliable. [41] This placed present day series of social, ecological, and cultural crisis, alienated us from nature and from our fellow human beings, made unjust distribution of resources creating economic and political disorder, an ever raising wave of violence and an ugly polluted environment in which life become physically and mentally unhealthy.[42] When all the world understand beauty to be beautiful, then ugliness exists; when all understand goodness to be good, then evil exists.[43] Eastern mysticisms sees polar relationship of all opposites as two sides of the same reality; extreme parts of a single whole. Be in truth eternal, beyond earthly opposites.[44] In the psychosomatic healing and holistic healing the basic methodological frame work is a shift from the Cartesian dualistic framework, finding the unity between mind and body.

4.2.Deconstruction of the Binary opposite

Deconstruction often involves a way of reading that concerns itself with decentering with unmasking the problematic nature of all centers. According to Derrida all western thought is based on the idea of a center an origin, a truth, an ideal form, a presence, which is usually capitalized, and guarantees all meaning. For instance for 2000 years much of Western culture has been centered on the idea of Christianity and Christ. [45] So the longer for a center spawns binary opposites, with one term of the opposition central and the other marginal (man/women, spirit/matter, nature/culture, Caucasian/black, Christian/pagan and church/ charismatic movement). Further more, centers want to fix, or freeze the play of binary opposites[46]. According to Derrida we have no access to reality except through concepts, codes and categories, and the human mind functions by forming conceptual pairs. Deconstruction is a method of decentering, a way of reading, which first makes us aware of the centrality of the central term. Then it attempt to subvert the central term so that the marginalized term temporarily overthrows the hierarchy. In the psychosomatic healing within the charismatic context deconstruct the centrality of institutionalized structures and of the biological and medical science structure. Once within the charismatic structures rigidity of any emphasis make the group distinct, places the group within the center.

The western thought is based on the idea of a center- an origin, a truth, an ideal form, a fixed point, an immovable mover, an essence, a God, a presence, which is usually capitalized and guarantees all meaning.[47] When we concentrate on the center we marginalize others. In the male-dominated societies, man is central and women is the marginalized, repressed, ignored and pushed to the margins. The institutionalized church and independent charismatic movement without any peculiar over emphasis are two binary opposite just like spirit/matter, nature/culture, Christian/pagan.[48] Solidarity with the dalits, women and marginalized brining them to the center is an attempt for deconstruction of slavery and patriarchies.

5. Two alternative models in psychotherapy

5.1. Cognitive therapy and psychosomatic problems

Cognitive therapy originated some 40 years ago in America as an effective therapy for depression, anxiety and other psychological problems.[49] The cognitive model links the client’s individual vulnerabilities, core beliefs about themselves and their susceptibility to illness, with physical and psychological symptoms and their maintenance. The cognitive model includes a link between thoughts, behaviors, emotions and physical factors, which interact in a various circle to maintain the problem, triggers and critical incidents that precipitate the problem, unhelpful attitudes and beliefs that predispose the individual to developing the problems are dealt with.[50] The assumptions and beliefs underlying psychosomatic are ‘in order to be happy, I must be loved by others’ or ‘I must be successful and never make mistake’, I am a bad person, I am vulnerable, etc are emerged during the counseling, identifying the patterns in the client way of thinking, global evaluations of the self or others, memories of family saying, high or low of mood, and the down word arrow technique are used.[51] . Here what is required is a cognitive restructuring. Within the charismatic milieu a cognitive restructuring takes place with or without the knowledge.

5.2.Problem Solving Approach

Aaron Beck who was trained in psychoanalysis, became dissatisfied with its complexity and abstractness and developed a method of cognitive analysis of the problems of his patients. Although he was interested in behavior therapy, Beck felt it was limited because it ignored patients’ thinking about themselves. His cognitive therapy attempted to correct faulty interpretations of reality and faulty reasoning. He emphasized solving problems rather than changing personal defects.[52] Jay Haley, a noted expert in the field of therapy, developed the method of problem solving therapy particularly for the family.[53] Problem-solving approach has a time, a place, an agenda, it is task-oriented, and it is not a power struggle. Problem-solving has two distinct phases: a problem definition phase and a problem solution phase. In the problem defining phase the problem need to be specific (refer to what both partners can observe), brief and express the feelings about the behavior which is the subject of the conflict. In the solving phase the brainstorming, evaluate their costs and benefits to each partner/situation and to the relationship, decide on the best solution and be willing to compromise; problem-solving involves give-and-take or a win- win situation.[54] Also, when defining and solving problems discuss only one problem at a time and paraphrase what you say by checking the accuracy of your problem. Remember, the attitude with which you approach problem-solving is very important. Problem-solving requires collaboration and problem-solving requires that each problem being discussed is seen as a mutual problem.[55] In the charismatic context people are being driven with the hope that their problems will be over in the presence of the charismatic leader. They are forced to visualize the picture with out the problems and a hope is developed through the external interventions.

  1. Conclusion

When mind is disturbed, the multiplicity of things is produced, but when mind is quieted, the multiplicity of things disappears.[56] Our thoughts and beliefs are a real and potent force in healing wounds and disease. That there is nothing supernatural required in this apparently "miraculous" process. The psychosomatic healing is a real phenomenon, one that occurs frequently enough to merit the attention of our health care system. That there is nothing supernatural in the process, where it happens n within the scope of medical science, psychotherapy or in the charismatic milieu. Before conclude the paper I would like to place some limitation of this paper that it will not find a pleasing report in the eyes of the medical and psychiatry practitioners who are with the materialist mind set emphasis the hierarchy over the sick and not having a holistic approach in healing. Most of the charismatic healers acknowledge that all healing are done and are product of the divine intervention. They may not like my classification of psychosomatic healing while acknowledging the fact that all healing comes from God and most of them are a natural process. Psycho-therapists over emphasis of the mind over the matter also need to be questioned within a holistic framework.

Bibliography

[i]



[1] David Jary and Lulia Jary eds., Collins Dictonary of Sociology (Glasgow: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 63.

[2] First group examples are Matha Amrithananta Maye, Sathya Sai Baba etc. The second group introduces some techniques and practices to improve one’s way of living like, the art of living, Yoga and Surya Yoga. The leaders of this kind of movements are also getting global acceptance, Sree Sree Revi Sanker through the art of living and Suryaji through ‘Suryayoga’ attract millions of people.

[3] K.C. Thomas, Nava Pentecostu Prasthanangal Human Tragediyilninnu Divine Comediyilekku (Thirivalla, Christian Sahitya Samithy, 2003), 67.

[4] Rowena Robinson, Conversion, Continuity and Change Lived Christianity in Southern Goa (New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1998), 201.

[5] Western Scholars began to use the term ‘new religious movement to describe, (a) religion that were new to the west, although like Tibetan Buddhism, they could have existed for hundreds of years in another part of the world, (b) religious organization referred to in the media and popular parlance as ‘cults’ or ‘sects’ and which had they emerged earlier, the scholars themselves would continue to classify as cults or sects. Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Smelser, eds., International Encyclopedia of Sociology and Behavioral sciences, Vol.3, (New York: Editors 2001), 1653.

[6] Peter W. Williams, Popular Religion in America – Symbolic Change and Modernization Process in Historical Perspective (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989), 3.

[7] In this study the concentration is on the second category. The difference is with the doctrinal aspects the following are some of the peculiar Pentecostal doctrines such as: Spiritual awakening, confession, Baptism, separation (pure living), communion, Holy Communion and Prayer. In the charismatic movements the separation is not practiced such as ornament and materialistic life.

[8] Data is collected from Registration Department of Kottayam Collectorate (Kottayam: Collectorate, 2007). In the year 2007 and 2008 data are not clear according to the researches knowledge.

[9] Hans Mole, Identity and the Sacred – A Sketch for a New Social- Scientific Theory of Religion (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1976), 44.

[10] A. A. Lovekin “Charismatic Experience,” Dictionary of Pastoral care and Counseling, Edited by Rondey J. Hunter (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1990), 139.

[11] Max Weber, Economy and Society: An outline of Interpretive Sociology, Guenther Ruth and Claus Wittich, eds., (London: University of California press, 1978), 48.

[12] Oomen C. Thomas, Introduction to Theology, Revised Edition, (Delhi: ISPCK, 2003), 129.

[13] Virginia H. Hine, “Pentecostal Glossolalia toward a Functional Interpretation” in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol-8, No-8, 1969, P.211, accessed by jstore.org, Aug,14,2007.

[14] The concept of electronic religious space is taken from the Work of Charismatic /Pentecostal appropriation through the use of electronic media by the charismatic movement. Transformation of religious landscape is made possible through facilitating transnational and homogenizing cultural flows. This charismatic movement uses this space for the publicity of the movement by addressing a large viewers and there by creating a global identity.

[15] The local places like the church, mosques, temples are sacred only because they are linked to the key sacred places or events of the tradition of concerned religion. In Christianity there are two kinds of sacred places, one is the eternal one having spiritual significance such as heaven, and the other is the location of worship. Some times devotees are putting more emphasis on the physical places than their spiritual meaning. In the charismatic movement the notion of eternal sacred places are there but there location of worship are not considered as sacred, so thy don’t have any ornamentation of their worship place as found in the traditional churches. Their perception of sacredness is related to per formative worship, the time of worship, experience of the devotees etc. This belief constructs a space of sacredness within the mind of the believers. Cited by Douglas Davis, “Christianity”, Jean Holm & John Boweker (eds.), Sacred Place, (United Kingdom: Printer and Publishers, 1994), 30.

[16] Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Everyday life (England: Penguin Books, 1990), 32. Here after cited as Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Every Day Life,….

[17] Brayan Turner, The body and society, Second Edition, (New Delhi: Sage publication, 1996), 101.

[18] E.E. Uzukwu, Worship as Body Language- Introduction to Christian Worship; an African orientation, (Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1997). 10. Here after cited as E.E. Uzukwu, Worship as Body Language….

[19] Robert G. Rayburn, Come, let us Worship- Corporate Worship in the Evangelical church, (NP: Baker Book house, 1980), 23.

[20] A.M. Fair Bairn, The Church History (New Delhi: Omson Publications, 1999), 270.

[21] When an individual plays a part he implicitly requests his observers to take seriously the impression that is fostered before them. They are asked to believe that the character they see actually possesses the attributes he appears to posses, that the task he performs will have the consequences that are implicitly claimed for it, and that, in general, matters are what they appear to be. Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Every Day Life, 28.

[22] The stage and the entire tent like structure of the Church and the caption written on the backdrop of the stage creates the physical environment. The simplistic and captive settings attract the devotees towards the movement. Performers present themselves as the religious leaders having a charismatic aura. The personal front of perfomers are defined in such a way that they can sustain their identity of a charismatic person. They wore neat and tidy dresses. The main leaders are allowed to wear tie, and facial expressions tend others to believe that they have a luminal identity. Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Every Day Life, 29.

[23] Deanne Bogdan, “Musical Spirituality: Reflections on Identity and the Ethics of Embodied Aesthetic Experience in/and the Academy,” Journal of Aesthetic Education, Vol.37, No.2, (2003): 5 Accessed from www.jstore.org., on 21-08-2007, 9.30am.

[24] E.E.Uzukwu, Worship as body language..., 1.

[25] Walter J.Ong, Morality and Literacy: The Technology of the Word (London: Rout ledge, 1988), 67.

[26] Robert E. Weber, “Music and the Arts in Christian Worship”, The complete library of Christian Worship, Vol-4, (U.S: Hendrickson Publishers,1993), 93.

[27] McNichol T. The new faith in medicine. USA Today, April 7, 1996, p 4. http://www.quackwatch.org /index.html accessed in 10/23/2008 12:36 PM.

[28] E. E. Thornton and H. N. Malony, “Faith Healing”, Rondey J. Hunder (ed), Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counselling…., 401.

[29] William M. Clements, Ritual expectation in Pentecostal healing experience, Western Folklore, Vol-40, No-2, 1981, P. 145, assessed from www.jstore.org, on 21-08-2007, 9.30am.

[30] Kenneth Wapnik, The meaning of the forgiveness: The meeting place of a course in Miracles and Christianity (Great Britain: Arkana Paper Backs, 1987), 84.

[31] Kenneth Wapnik, The meaning of the forgiveness: The meeting place of A course in Miracles and Christianity,…, 88.

[32] http://www.psychosomatic-healing.co.nz/what.is.it.html accessed on 10/23/2008 12:27 PM.

[33] http://www.surgerydoor.co.uk/medical_conditions/Indices/P/psychosomatic_disorders.htm, accessed on 10/23/2008 12:27 PM.

[34] Diana Sanders, Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems (London: Sage Publications, 1996), IX.

[35] A. J. Barsky,and G.L. Klerman, Overview: Hypochondriacs, bodily complaints and somatic styles. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1983, 140: 273-81, F. Creed, R. Mayour and A. Hopkins (eds). Medical symptoms not explained by organic disease, (London: Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1992), Cited in, Diana Sanders, Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems, (London: Sage Publications, 1996), 1.

[36] http://www.psychosomatic –healing.co.nz/index.html. Accessed on October 17, 2008, 11.30 am.

[37] http://www.rehabilitatenz.co.nz & http://www.psychosomatic-healing.co.nz Submitted by Kevin Owen on Thu, 2007-10-18 08:24, Accessed on October, 17, 2008, 11.30am.

[38] The Power of Thought to Heal, An Ontology of Personal Faith”, (A Doctoral Dissertation submitted to and Approved by the Religion Department Faculty at the Claremont Graduate University, 1998), cited in http://www.god andscience. org/evolution/mind-body_dualism.html, Accessed on October, 17, 2008, 11.30am.

[39] Fritjof Capra, The Tao of physics, third edition, (London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 27.

[40] If we accept Whitehead's somewhat oversimplified, dramatic statement that "the whole history of philosophy is nothing but a series of footnotes on Plato," this thumbnail sketch may suffice to indicate the direction that the history of philosophy was to take. Two major periods followed the Greek one: the medieval, when philosophy came together with the Judeo-Christian tradition, and the modern, beginning with Descartes. In the medieval period, philosophy went hand in hand with theology and was employed in working out proofs of God's existence or in clarifying the status of the Platonic Forms, then known as "universals." Mircea Eliade (Editor In Chief), Encyclopedia of religion, An Overview, Vol.11, (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1987), 292. Here after Encyclopedia of religion,…. 320.

[41] Revi Ravindra, “Physics and Religion”, Encyclopedia of religion, Vol.11, 320. Only what is external can be objective and real. Even in the external realm a further division is made between what are called primary and secondary qualities. This division is necessitated by the demand for an unambiguous intersubjective agreement about the external characteristics of an object. Only those characteristics are regarded as primary that can be quantified and measured and can thus be divorced from any consideration of the individual observer's relative quality of attention, clarity of perception, or level of being. A well-known twentieth-century statement about the importance of measurement, by the famous physicist Max Planck, is "That which cannot be measured is not real." Reality is thus, by assumption, divested of higher feelings or of sensations requiring purified perceptions; it is reduced to those characteristics that can be mechanically quantified, such as size, mass, and so on. "Just as the eye was made to see colors, and the ear to hear sounds," wrote Kepler, "so the human mind was made not to understand whatever you please, but quantity.

[42] Fritjof Capra, The Tao of physics, third edition, (London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 28.

[43] Lao. Tzu, Tao Te Ching, trans. Ch’u Ta- Kao (London: Allen & Unwin, 1970), cha:1 cited in Fritjof Capra, The Tao of physics, third edition, (London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 157.

[44] Krishna advised in Bhagavad Gita, cited in Fritjof Capra, The Tao of physics, third edition, (London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 157.

[45] The problem with centers, for Derrida, is that they attempt to exclude. In doing so they ignore, repress or marginalize others which become the other. In male-dominated societies, man is central and women is the marginalized other, repressed, ignored, pushed to the margins. If you have a culture which has Christ in the central to that culture, and Buddhists, Muslims, Jews, any body different will be in the margins, marginalized pushed to the outside. We must remember that Derrida was born into an assimilated Jewish family in Algiers, growing up as a member of a marginalized, dispossessed culture. Jim Powell, Derrida for beginners (Chennai: Orient Longman Ltd, 2000), 25. Here after Jim Powell, Derrida for beginners,…..

[46] The play of binary opposite is that there is no central configuration that attempts to freeze the play of system, no marginal one, no privileged one, no repressed one. According to Derrida all language and all texts are when deconstructed, like this, and so is human thought, which is always made up of language. He says we should continuously attempt to see this free play in all our language and texts which otherwise will tend toward fixity, institutionalization, centralization and totalitarianism. Jim Powell, Derrida for beginners, 28.

[47] Jim Powell, Derrida for beginners, 21.

[48] Jim Powell, Derrida for beginners, 24.

[49] A.T. Beck, Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders (New York: International Universities Press, 1976), A.T. Beck, G. Emery and R.L. Greenberg, Anxiety Disorders and Phobias; A cognitive perspective (New York: Basic Books, 1985), cited in Diana Sanders, Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems (London: Sage Publications, 1996), 14.

[50] Diana Sanders, Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems…, 26.

[51] D.D. Burns, Feeling good (New York: New American Library, 1980), cited in, Diana Sanders, Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems, 103-104.

[52] A. Beck, Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders (1976). J. Haley, Problem Solving Therapy (1976). J. Wolpe, The Practice of Behavior Therapy 3d ed. (1982). Cited in., J. Patton, “Problem solving”, Rondey J. Hunder (ed), Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counselling. 955.

[53] http://ub-counseling.buffalo.edu/probsolve.shtml assessed on, October 18, 2008: 6:32 am.

[54] Some of their decisions many be such as “My long-lasting feeling of paralysis of the left part of my whole person has disappeared...., ... A worried feeling of involuntary urinating has disappeared since I had the feeling that I could influence the urinating, and now I feel good...., ... My stuttering of many years has disappeared...., ... I have stopped crying as a means of obtaining attention...., ... My tendency to feel giddy every time I stood on my feet has gone...., ... I can no longer feel my pulse hammering unpleasantly all over my body when I lie down..... etc.

[55] http://www.student-ffairs.buffalo.edu/shs/training.shtml assessed on, October 18, 2008: 6:32 am.

[56] Ashvaghosha, The Awakening of Faith, trans. D.T. Suzuki (Chicago: Open Court, 1900) p.78. Cited in. Fritjof Capra, The Tao of physics, third edition, (London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 29.



[i] David Jary and Lulia Jary eds., Collins Dictonary of Sociology (Glasgow: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 63.

[i] First group examples are Matha Amrithananta Maye, Sathya Sai Baba etc. The second group introduces some techniques and practices to improve one’s way of living like, the art of living, Yoga and Surya Yoga. The leaders of this kind of movements are also getting global acceptance, Sree Sree Revi Sanker through the art of living and Suryaji through ‘Suryayoga’ attract millions of people.

[i] K.C. Thomas, Nava Pentecostu Prasthanangal Human Tragediyilninnu Divine Comediyilekku (Thirivalla, Christian Sahitya Samithy, 2003), 67.

[i] Rowena Robinson, Conversion, Continuity and Change Lived Christianity in Southern Goa (New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1998), 201.

[i] Western Scholars began to use the term ‘new religious movement to describe, (a) religion that were new to the west, although like Tibetan Buddhism, they could have existed for hundreds of years in another part of the world, (b) religious organization referred to in the media and popular parlance as ‘cults’ or ‘sects’ and which had they emerged earlier, the scholars themselves would continue to classify as cults or sects. Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Smelser, eds., International Encyclopedia of Sociology and Behavioral sciences, Vol.3, (New York: Editors 2001), 1653.

[i] Peter W. Williams, Popular Religion in America – Symbolic Change and Modernization Process in Historical Perspective (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989), 3.

[i] In this study the concentration is on the second category. The difference is with the doctrinal aspects the following are some of the peculiar Pentecostal doctrines such as: Spiritual awakening, confession, Baptism, separation (pure living), communion, Holy Communion and Prayer. In the charismatic movements the separation is not practiced such as ornament and materialistic life.

[i] Data is collected from Registration Department of Kottayam Collectorate (Kottayam: Collectorate, 2007). In the year 2007 and 2008 data are not clear according to the researches knowledge.

[i] Hans Mole, Identity and the Sacred – A Sketch for a New Social- Scientific Theory of Religion (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1976), 44.

[i] A. A. Lovekin “Charismatic Experience,” Dictionary of Pastoral care and Counseling, Edited by Rondey J. Hunter (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1990), 139.

[i] Max Weber, Economy and Society: An outline of Interpretive Sociology, Guenther Ruth and Claus Wittich, eds., (London: University of California press, 1978), 48.

[i] Oomen C. Thomas, Introduction to Theology, Revised Edition, (Delhi: ISPCK, 2003), 129.

[i] Virginia H. Hine, “Pentecostal Glossolalia toward a Functional Interpretation” in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol-8, No-8, 1969, P.211, accessed by jstore.org, Aug,14,2007.

[i] The concept of electronic religious space is taken from the Work of Charismatic /Pentecostal appropriation through the use of electronic media by the charismatic movement. Transformation of religious landscape is made possible through facilitating transnational and homogenizing cultural flows. This charismatic movement uses this space for the publicity of the movement by addressing a large viewers and there by creating a global identity.

[i] The local places like the church, mosques, temples are sacred only because they are linked to the key sacred places or events of the tradition of concerned religion. In Christianity there are two kinds of sacred places, one is the eternal one having spiritual significance such as heaven, and the other is the location of worship. Some times devotees are putting more emphasis on the physical places than their spiritual meaning. In the charismatic movement the notion of eternal sacred places are there but there location of worship are not considered as sacred, so thy don’t have any ornamentation of their worship place as found in the traditional churches. Their perception of sacredness is related to per formative worship, the time of worship, experience of the devotees etc. This belief constructs a space of sacredness within the mind of the believers. Cited by Douglas Davis, “Christianity”, Jean Holm & John Boweker (eds.), Sacred Place, (United Kingdom: Printer and Publishers, 1994), 30.

[i] Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Everyday life (England: Penguin Books, 1990), 32. Here after cited as Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Every Day Life,….

[i] Brayan Turner, The body and society, Second Edition, (New Delhi: Sage publication, 1996), 101.

[i] E.E. Uzukwu, Worship as Body Language- Introduction to Christian Worship; an African orientation, (Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1997). 10. Here after cited as E.E. Uzukwu, Worship as Body Language….

[i] Robert G. Rayburn, Come, let us Worship- Corporate Worship in the Evangelical church, (NP: Baker Book house, 1980), 23.

[i] A.M. Fair Bairn, The Church History (New Delhi: Omson Publications, 1999), 270.

[i] When an individual plays a part he implicitly requests his observers to take seriously the impression that is fostered before them. They are asked to believe that the character they see actually possesses the attributes he appears to posses, that the task he performs will have the consequences that are implicitly claimed for it, and that, in general, matters are what they appear to be. Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Every Day Life, 28.

[i] The stage and the entire tent like structure of the Church and the caption written on the backdrop of the stage creates the physical environment. The simplistic and captive settings attract the devotees towards the movement. Performers present themselves as the religious leaders having a charismatic aura. The personal front of perfomers are defined in such a way that they can sustain their identity of a charismatic person. They wore neat and tidy dresses. The main leaders are allowed to wear tie, and facial expressions tend others to believe that they have a luminal identity. Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Every Day Life, 29.

[i] Deanne Bogdan, “Musical Spirituality: Reflections on Identity and the Ethics of Embodied Aesthetic Experience in/and the Academy,” Journal of Aesthetic Education, Vol.37, No.2, (2003): 5 Accessed from www.jstore.org., on 21-08-2007, 9.30am.

[i] E.E.Uzukwu, Worship as body language..., 1.

[i] Walter J.Ong, Morality and Literacy: The Technology of the Word (London: Rout ledge, 1988), 67.

[i] Robert E. Weber, “Music and the Arts in Christian Worship”, The complete library of Christian Worship, Vol-4, (U.S: Hendrickson Publishers,1993), 93.

[i] McNichol T. The new faith in medicine. USA Today, April 7, 1996, p 4. http://www.quackwatch.org /index.html accessed in 10/23/2008 12:36 PM.

[i] E. E. Thornton and H. N. Malony, “Faith Healing”, Rondey J. Hunder (ed), Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counselling…., 401.

[i] William M. Clements, Ritual expectation in Pentecostal healing experience, Western Folklore, Vol-40, No-2, 1981, P. 145, assessed from www.jstore.org, on 21-08-2007, 9.30am.

[i] Kenneth Wapnik, The meaning of the forgiveness: The meeting place of a course in Miracles and Christianity (Great Britain: Arkana Paper Backs, 1987), 84.

[i] Kenneth Wapnik, The meaning of the forgiveness: The meeting place of A course in Miracles and Christianity,…, 88.

[i] http://www.psychosomatic-healing.co.nz/what.is.it.html accessed on 10/23/2008 12:27 PM.

[i] http://www.surgerydoor.co.uk/medical_conditions/Indices/P/psychosomatic_disorders.htm, accessed on 10/23/2008 12:27 PM.

[i] Diana Sanders, Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems (London: Sage Publications, 1996), IX.

[i] A. J. Barsky,and G.L. Klerman, Overview: Hypochondriacs, bodily complaints and somatic styles. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1983, 140: 273-81, F. Creed, R. Mayour and A. Hopkins (eds). Medical symptoms not explained by organic disease, (London: Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1992), Cited in, Diana Sanders, Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems, (London: Sage Publications, 1996), 1.

[i] http://www.psychosomatic –healing.co.nz/index.html. Accessed on October 17, 2008, 11.30 am.

[i] http://www.rehabilitatenz.co.nz & http://www.psychosomatic-healing.co.nz Submitted by Kevin Owen on Thu, 2007-10-18 08:24, Accessed on October, 17, 2008, 11.30am.

[i] The Power of Thought to Heal, An Ontology of Personal Faith”, (A Doctoral Dissertation submitted to and Approved by the Religion Department Faculty at the Claremont Graduate University, 1998), cited in http://www.god andscience. org/evolution/mind-body_dualism.html, Accessed on October, 17, 2008, 11.30am.

[i] Fritjof Capra, The Tao of physics, third edition, (London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 27.

[i] If we accept Whitehead's somewhat oversimplified, dramatic statement that "the whole history of philosophy is nothing but a series of footnotes on Plato," this thumbnail sketch may suffice to indicate the direction that the history of philosophy was to take. Two major periods followed the Greek one: the medieval, when philosophy came together with the Judeo-Christian tradition, and the modern, beginning with Descartes. In the medieval period, philosophy went hand in hand with theology and was employed in working out proofs of God's existence or in clarifying the status of the Platonic Forms, then known as "universals." Mircea Eliade (Editor In Chief), Encyclopedia of religion, An Overview, Vol.11, (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1987), 292. Here after Encyclopedia of religion,…. 320.

[i] Revi Ravindra, “Physics and Religion”, Encyclopedia of religion, Vol.11, 320. Only what is external can be objective and real. Even in the external realm a further division is made between what are called primary and secondary qualities. This division is necessitated by the demand for an unambiguous intersubjective agreement about the external characteristics of an object. Only those characteristics are regarded as primary that can be quantified and measured and can thus be divorced from any consideration of the individual observer's relative quality of attention, clarity of perception, or level of being. A well-known twentieth-century statement about the importance of measurement, by the famous physicist Max Planck, is "That which cannot be measured is not real." Reality is thus, by assumption, divested of higher feelings or of sensations requiring purified perceptions; it is reduced to those characteristics that can be mechanically quantified, such as size, mass, and so on. "Just as the eye was made to see colors, and the ear to hear sounds," wrote Kepler, "so the human mind was made not to understand whatever you please, but quantity.

[i] Fritjof Capra, The Tao of physics, third edition, (London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 28.

[i] Lao. Tzu, Tao Te Ching, trans. Ch’u Ta- Kao (London: Allen & Unwin, 1970), cha:1 cited in Fritjof Capra, The Tao of physics, third edition, (London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 157.

[i] Krishna advised in Bhagavad Gita, cited in Fritjof Capra, The Tao of physics, third edition, (London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 157.

[i] The problem with centers, for Derrida, is that they attempt to exclude. In doing so they ignore, repress or marginalize others which become the other. In male-dominated societies, man is central and women is the marginalized other, repressed, ignored, pushed to the margins. If you have a culture which has Christ in the central to that culture, and Buddhists, Muslims, Jews, any body different will be in the margins, marginalized pushed to the outside. We must remember that Derrida was born into an assimilated Jewish family in Algiers, growing up as a member of a marginalized, dispossessed culture. Jim Powell, Derrida for beginners (Chennai: Orient Longman Ltd, 2000), 25. Here after Jim Powell, Derrida for beginners,…..

[i] The play of binary opposite is that there is no central configuration that attempts to freeze the play of system, no marginal one, no privileged one, no repressed one. According to Derrida all language and all texts are when deconstructed, like this, and so is human thought, which is always made up of language. He says we should continuously attempt to see this free play in all our language and texts which otherwise will tend toward fixity, institutionalization, centralization and totalitarianism. Jim Powell, Derrida for beginners, 28.

[i] Jim Powell, Derrida for beginners, 21.

[i] Jim Powell, Derrida for beginners, 24.

[i] A.T. Beck, Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders (New York: International Universities Press, 1976), A.T. Beck, G. Emery and R.L. Greenberg, Anxiety Disorders and Phobias; A cognitive perspective (New York: Basic Books, 1985), cited in Diana Sanders, Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems (London: Sage Publications, 1996), 14.

[i] Diana Sanders, Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems…, 26.

[i] D.D. Burns, Feeling good (New York: New American Library, 1980), cited in, Diana Sanders, Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems, 103-104.

[i] A. Beck, Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders (1976). J. Haley, Problem Solving Therapy (1976). J. Wolpe, The Practice of Behavior Therapy 3d ed. (1982). Cited in., J. Patton, “Problem solving”, Rondey J. Hunder (ed), Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counselling. 955.

[i] http://ub-counseling.buffalo.edu/probsolve.shtml assessed on, October 18, 2008: 6:32 am.

[i] Some of their decisions many be such as “My long-lasting feeling of paralysis of the left part of my whole person has disappeared...., ... A worried feeling of involuntary urinating has disappeared since I had the feeling that I could influence the urinating, and now I feel good...., ... My stuttering of many years has disappeared...., ... I have stopped crying as a means of obtaining attention...., ... My tendency to feel giddy every time I stood on my feet has gone...., ... I can no longer feel my pulse hammering unpleasantly all over my body when I lie down..... etc.

[i] http://www.student-ffairs.buffalo.edu/shs/training.shtml assessed on, October 18, 2008: 6:32 am.

[i] Ashvaghosha, The Awakening of Faith, trans. D.T. Suzuki (Chicago: Open Court, 1900) p.78. Cited in. Fritjof Capra, The Tao of physics, third edition, (London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 29.

Dr. Binu Peniel

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